Changing hands during its defining history, Edinburgh Castle triumphs as one of Europe’s oldest and most historically significant sites. Perched on a volcanic plug, Castle Rock overlooking Scotland’s capital, the imposing castle we know today was built in the 12th century. However, the hill hosted Scottish royals long before that. The first King of Scotland to reside on Castle Rock was Malcolm III Canmore. After the death of his wife, Saint Margaret’s Chapel was erected between 1130 and 1140 and is the oldest surviving building in Edinburgh today. Centuries of royals followed thereafter, and the castle transformed into a military base during the 17th century, and later, a prison. As the most besieged castle in Great Britain, Edinburgh Castle has truly stood the test of time. You can tour the castle with a guide at night while you learn about its dramatic history which is also impressive, even if you do not enter the castle!